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answering the NEBOSH IGC exam questions during the exam, which you can practise during your revision. Revising for the NEBOSH IGC exams. Using past. NEBOSH Past Papers, IGC 1, IGC 2 Question and Answers Practice makes a man This will help you to get a better understanding of what the exam questions. NEBOSH (The National Examination Board in Occupational Safety and Health) was formed in answers in response to the demands of the question paper.
Nebosh command words and example Command words are the action verbs which is an important technique used in Nebosh examinations. The absence of risk of serious personal injury. In this action verb Nebosh will normally ask types , reasons or else categories in syllabus Question: Identify three types of legal duties that the employer has to comply with?
In this type of question you no need to explain the key features , simply mentioning is enough. Outline the common duties of employees????
Reasonable care: To take reasonable care of themselves and others safety Reporting of hazards: To report to the supervisor regarding imminent hazards, if any found Co-Operate with employer: Practice makes a man perfect. This will help you to get a better understanding of what the exam questions would look like and how the questions are laid out.
It would prepare you mentally what to expect rather than handling something absolutely new in the exam hall. Solving these NEBOSH past papers as part of your revision work, would help you work your way through the past paper questions using your course materials, revision notes, and preparing relevant answers.
You may keep these answers as part of your revision notes so you can read through them at a later date. A couple of weeks before the day of the exam it is recommended that you download these NEBOSH past papers and print them off so you can test yourself in an realistic exam scenario.
Assessing a consultant A13 Q16 A16 What are the responsibilities of employers to people who are not their workers? Employers must make adequate provision to protect third parties from harm as a result of their work activities by: The sort of questions to which you need answers include: Q14 A14 Outline typical duties of employers to workers.
Be prepared to spend time discussing matters with the prospective consultant. Q17 Where business premises are rented. The two general duties of workers are: Q15 A15 Outline common duties of workers. The general duties of employers are: It would depend on the terms of the tenancy agreement. Responsibility lies with the person who may be said to control the particular aspect of the premises.
A17 Q18 A18 31 Outline the areas of responsibility placed on people in the supply chain for the articles and substances which they supply to workplaces. All people involved in the design.
Q20 A20 How employers consult with workers? You could not do better than quote the syllabus requirements: Your answer to this question should draw upon what you covered in section 7 of unit 4 Effecting cultural change.
This is because we know from experience that. Outline the type of media that might be used to convey the health and safety message in the workplace.
The immediate problem that you would have if this were an 8 mark 9 minute question would be not to run out of time indeed. In general terms. Q21 A21 What are safety circles?
Safety circles are small groups of workers who meet informally to discuss safety problems in their immediate working environment As we explained. NEBOSH have set many superficially similar communications questions which are actually asking different questions. Q1 A1 Q2 A2 32 Outline the various methods which may be used to convey the health and safety message in the workplace.
Conveying the health and safety message in the workplace. A definition of communication would again be very valuable because it would provide you with a starting point for discussing computer compatibility.
Outline factors which might interfere with various forms of communication in the workplace. Interference with verbal communications.. The answer again should still usefully start with a definition of communication you should be able to make up your own and then address the communication problems associated with: Obviously an appropriate answer will need to include the verbal communication problems addressed in the previous question but will need to encompass a lot more..
You should be able to provide simple examples of. Outline the advantages and disadvantages of basing workplace communications on electronic systems such as e-mail.. Electronic communication Again. Interference with various forms of communication. The HSE recommend employers to: Full consultation must take place between the appropriate managers to ensure the creation of an effective and relevant training programme.
More mature persons: We refer you back to the study material and in particular the question about John, who is being considered for promotion, and the problems he might face. This is actually a classic NEBOSH Diploma question in that it requires the candidate to take a wider look at a situation but as a good Certificate student you should be able to come up with some good responses. Training the manager: Again, you would perhaps be well advised to start your response with a series of reasons why the manager needs training You will be aware that the law is starting to change to include, for example, the offence of corporate manslaughter - managerial responsibilities are clearly of the utmost relevance here.
In developing a management health and safety training programme, consideration should be given to: A favourite NEBOSH question in the past at both Certificate and Diploma level involved the candidate being asked to imagine and describe how they would run training course on such and such a subject. However, on checking we found that the previous syllabus also made little mention of this, but there were, as we said, fairly frequent questions on it.
Accordingly, we feel we should prepare you, in case Careful preparation and generous provision of videos and other audio-visual material is no guarantee of a stimulating and useful training course. Accordingly, describe some techniques which might be available to the trainer. Techniques that might be available to the trainer: A question such as this could probably elicit a reasonable answer from someone with no health and safety knowledge at all.
Again, we will spare repeating all the points we made in the study books; here are just a few ideas for ensuring that your answer has a health and safety flavour to it: Notice boards - again, wide availability of informative material from HSE etc. Imaginative use of notice boards, including frequent changes of the display; dividing up notice boards with different individuals or groups having responsibility for different areas on the board s.
Newsletters e-mail or hard copy - question and answer sections can, in larger organisations, almost run themselves; links in the newsletter to other sources of health and safety information, perhaps on the web. Safety forum - here you would need to mention the sort of items that would be on the agenda accident reports etc and the make-up of the forum. Q9 A9. Outline the key components of an induction training programme.
Immediately the examiner is made to feel that they are in the presence of someone who knows what they are talking about assuming the definition is correct of course. You can then add to your definition giving you a richer answer, briefly mentioning for example: Explain briefly what is meant by the following human factors: Also look at this the other way round, ie the influence of the culture of the workplace on the Perception Is there a serious mismatch? Give some examples of motivation that might usefully be used in the workplace.
Examples of motivation A14 Active indicators show how successfully health and safety plans are being implemented. A12 The prevention of human error Factors you should have mentioned include the overwhelming importance of the organisation.
Your definition should cover the main points of the definitions given in the unit: Q12 When considering the prevention of human error.
Key points under the three suggested headings include: Reactive indicators show the outcomes of breaches of health and safety systems and procedures. It is not the accident rate itself which indicates the state of health and safety in the workplace. The main internal influences are management commitment..
Q21 A21 Why is encoding such a key element in the communication process? In order for the communication to be effective. Q19 A19 What is the difference between an error and a violation? An error is an action or decision which was not intended. Feedback opportunities may help. Most written communication is one-way and this does not. In low risk organisations.
This may occur because of a failure to notice the hazard or a failure to interpret it as a risk. The process of encoding and then decoding involves putting the message into words. Q17 List the main internal and external influences on the approach to health and safety in an organisation. Q16 A16 Why do accident rates increase during periods of organisational change? A lack of focus on health and safety by management and staff.
Q22 A22 Is feedback essential for effective communication? Through the influence of groups and group norms.
Q15 A15 Why are low accident rates not a good indicator of a positive safety culture? A low incidence of accidents may conceal a high number of near misses.
A violation is a deviation from a rule. A17 Q18 A18 What is perceptual distortion and how may it arise? Perceptual distortion. Q23 What are the main advantages and disadvantages of both written and oral forms of communication? A23 The following table shows the advantages and disadvantages of the two forms of communication. Q25 A25 How may safety briefings be supported?
By the use of procedural manuals and by reinforcing signs. Q28 A28 Apart from induction. Q27 A27 What should be the first priority in induction training? To set out the general instructions and procedures to be followed for safe movement around the workplace and what to do in the event of a fire or accident. Q26 Q26 What are the main functions of committees and working groups?
The main functions of formal meetings are to: Whenever there is a change to the job or tasks which workers are expected to perform. Advantages Disadvantages Written Permanent record Expensive More careful compilation Impersonal Widely distributed with ease Lack of feedback may lead to misunderstandings Oral Immediate provision of Time consuming and information expensive Immediate feedback Impermanent Personal and direct Opportunities for misinformation Q24 A24 How are graphical picture symbols used in safety communications?
Predominantly in signs. How do you classify allergic effects? Acute and chronic effects An acute effect usually involves a rapid response seconds. Chronic effects involve long-term response to exposure. Q4 A4 Very briefly explain how the results of a risk assessment can be prioritised. Recovery from a chronic effect is not to be expected. Make sure that you are able to provide examples of both physical and chemical acute effects.
Allergic reactions. Categorisation of health hazards. Unless the victim dies. Most biological agents. How to assess the risks in your workplace Follow the five steps in this leaflet: STEP 1: Look for the hazards STEP 2: Decide who might be harmed and how A5 The results of the risk assessment must be prioritised: The larger numbers of accidents included in statistics for an industry as a whole are likely to provide a more accurate reflection of reality than the smaller numbers involved in one particular workplace.
Its overall aim is to ensure that no one suffers harm as a result of workplace activities. Q7 A7 State the purpose and objectives of risk assessment. Q10 What limitations are there on the use of accidents statistics to draw comparisons with other workplaces or the industry as a whole?
The basis on which the statistics were prepared may not be the same and the workplaces themselves may not be directly comparable. STEP 3: Evaluate the risks and decide whether the existing precautions are adequate or whether more should be done STEP 4: Record your findings STEP 5: Review your assessment and revise if necessary Q6 A6 Why is the distinction between hazards and risks so important to health and safety management? Hazards will always exist to some extent in the workplace and usually it is not possible to eliminate them.
Q13 A13 State the four forms in which chemical agents may be encountered. Risk can be controlled and reduced. They give the numbers of less serious accidents which occur for each occurrence of the most serious. This is the central point of health and safety management. Q12 A12 What are the main causes of accidents? Human failings. Q8 A8 What is the basic calculation for risk?
A10 Q11 A11 What are the two ways in which accidents may be classified? By the cause of the accident itself or by the cause of the injury arising from the accident.
Q9 A9 What do accident triangles show? Accident triangles show the relationship between numbers of accidents with different outcomes. Risk assessment is an examination of what could cause harm to people as a result of work activities in order that appropriate precaution may be put in place to prevent harm.
Q14 A14 What is the difference between an acute and a chronic effect? An acute effect is the response induced by a single dose or limited exposure to an agent. What are the steps? The steps to a safe system of work: Element 6 Principles of control Q1 A1 42 The steps to a safe system of work will encompass the following. Q16 A16 Into what categories are accidents which result in injuries caused by falling divided? Q22 A22 State the three principles which underlie the order of the general control hierarchy.
Identifying hazards. A18 Q19 A19 What techniques are used for identifying hazards? Physical hazards cause harm to the body through mechanical. Q23 A23 What conditions might trigger a risk assessment review? Factors which would require a risk assessment include changes in legislation or control measures. Maintenance staff. Q20 A20 What is residual risk? Residual risk is the level of risk remaining after the application of safety precautions.
Q18 Apart from operators. It should be only low-level. Q17 A17 State the five steps involved in risk assessment. Q21 A21 What factors are used to evaluate risk? The likelihood of harm occurring and the severity of that harm. Elimination of the hazard. In developing a safe system of work, job safety analysis may be undertaken, breaking a task down into its component parts. What are the basic procedure for job safety analysis: The basic procedure for job safety analysis: Step 1 Identify the job to be examined Step 2 Break the job down into its chronological step-by-step component parts Step 3 Critically observe and examine each component part of the job to determine any hazard Step 4 Determine whether there is a significant risk from the observed hazard, to people or plant Step 5 Develop suitable control or protective measures to eliminate or reduce the risk of danger to people and plant Step 6 Produce written safe systems of work and job safety instructions Step 7 Provide the necessary training to operate the safe system of work Step 8 Review safe systems of work at planned intervals to ensure that they continue to be relevant and used.
List five or six situations in which a permit to work will be probably be required. Situations where a permit to work will be probably be required: Outline a few of the problems that might be involved in changing shifts in hazardous working environments.
Competence; it would seem unlikely that NEBOSH would ask a specific question on this, but you should certainly have an understanding of the problems involved in defining competence. Your answer should also encompass the fact that many people of long experience are very competent even though they may have received no formal training at all. Increasingly, legislation Regulations makes mention of the sort of qualifications that might be sufficient to indicate the competence necessary to undertake particular work responsibilities.
Your answer should also encompass the growing importance of NVQs and similar qualifications. Summarise the requirements of The Confined Spaces Regulations. The three duties defined by The Confined Spaces Regulations are as follows: Describe some confined space accidents. Describe some confined spaces and the hazards which may be associated with them. Examples of confined spaces and their associated hazards You should be able to name many examples: You should also be able to relate these examples to their respective hazard s , which may be classified as follows: B Oxygen deficiency may occur as a result of organic decay processes using up oxygen or as a result of an area being purged by the use of an inert gas such as nitrogen to flush out explosive gases such as methane; further purging with air may be required before the space is safe to enter.
C Fire, explosion and other hazards. General precautions against the hazards presented by gases, fumes and vapours in confined spaces include: Outline the factors which will be encompassed by a permit to work for a confined space In the case of confined space working, the permit to work provides: The treatment of minor injuries which If you ensure that you include these three aspects in your first-aid definition, you will not go far wrong.
Define the following: Also make sure that you have a clear idea of what constitutes, and examples of, low, medium and high risk work environments. Which three general principles of prevention are not included in the following list? A12 1 The three missing principles are: Q15 A15 What do engineering controls do? Engineering controls provide plant and equipment with built-in safety features and add particular safety equipment to processes in order to remove or reduce risks.
Q17 Define a safe system of work. Q16 A16 When should personal protective equipment be used? When it has not been possible to eliminate the hazard or reduce risk to acceptable levels by the use of engineering controls. Q13 A13 What type of sign is represented by the following pictograms?
Procedural controls define the way in which work should be carried out in relation to the hazard. Work can only start when it is confirmed that it is safe to do so. Q18 How does involving workers in the development of safe systems of work contribute to strengthening the safety culture? Involvement enables workers to gain a deeper understanding of hazards and risks. Q20 A20 Which types of control listed in 21 are used in permits-to-work?
All of them. Supervision is necessary to ensure that staff follow instructions and their training. Technical or engineering controls are those which are applied directly to the hazard itself in order to minimise the risk. A17 A safe system of work is a formal procedure which results from a systematic examination of the tasks of a work process in order to identify all the hazards and define methods of working which eliminate those hazards or minimise the risks associated with them.
On completion. Q23 A23 What are the key points in the list of requirements for a permit-to-work form? Q22 A22 What is a permit-to-work?
Permits-to-work are formal written documents specifying the work to be done and the precautions to be taken. Because only people who are competent by means of appropriate training and instruction may be allowed to undertake the work.
Behavioural controls define how the individual operator or groups of workers must act in relation to the hazard. Q21 A21 Why do instruction. A18 Q19 A19 What is the difference between technical. A25 Q26 A26 Q27 A29 What is the role of those with specially designated responsibilities in the event of an emergency?
Their role will be to: Q24 A24 What is the main objective of an emergency procedure? The main objective of emergency procedures is to provide a safe environment for workers during an emergency and to limit the loss of property. What items should not be included in a first aid kit? Medicines and tablets since they may only be dispensed by qualified medical personnel. Element 7 Monitoring. Q25 What hazards should be included in a risk assessment relating to emergency procedures?
Hazards at the workplace. When you first work through the study material. Yes we started this question as if it were an element 2 Policy question.
The syllabus lists the following forms of safety monitoring: Where an extension to the work is involved. Also a mention of auditing would enrich your answer. In outlining the distinction between a safety survey Accident records.
Proactive monitoring would have highlighted the fact that there is no system of work in place for dealing with the manoeuvering of vehicles in the yard. Q2 A2 Just checking again.. Even though statutory testing may be undertaken by an outside organisation.
The structure of HSG Statutory testing. Q3 Explain why accident and illness records may give a very limited indication of the effectiveness of the health and safety policy.
Such data may give a very poor indication of the effectiveness of the health and safety policy. We realise we are running the risk of overdoing the need for you to know the structure of HSG Statutory inspections..
Q5 A5 49 Outline the distinction between a safety survey.. A3 Q4 A4 Write a few words about statutory inspections. Q7 A7 Create a definition of a health and safety audit. This because an audit. Any definition of a health and safety audit should include the words: An inspection does not ask this question. Q6 A6 Why would even the most thorough inspection of the whole workplace not constitute an audit?
Q8 Outline the circumstances in which persons outside the company might be involved in undertaking aspects of a safety audit.. No prizes for seeing that all we have done is remove some words from the HSG65 definition which uses all the important words. Persons outside the company might be involved in undertaking aspects of a safety audit in some of the following circumstances: Q10 A10 What are performance standards and what role do they play in monitoring?
Performance standards are the statements of who does what.
Q12 A12 State the sources of information used in reactive monitoring. The purpose of workplace inspections is to ensure that the control arrangements specified in the safety policy are operating effectively and that they cover all the risks. Safety surveys are in-depth inspections of specific issues or procedures where there is reason to believe that there may be deficiencies in the existing safety systems.
Q13 A13 State the purpose of workplace inspections. They form the basis against which actual performance may be measured to identify how effective the safety policy is in practice. Reactive monitoring is where accidents and other safety-related incidents are investigated to find out what went wrong and identify action to put it right so that there will be no recurrence.
Q16 A16 What is the difference between a safety survey and safety tour? Safety tours are generally unannounced inspections of the major control measures in a workplace following a predetermined route. Active monitoring is where the existing safety measures are inspected to find out if anything may go wrong and identify action to put it right before there is an incident.
The information for reactive monitoring comes from the investigation of accidents and other safety-related incidents. Q11 A11 What do we mean by systematic monitoring? Systematic monitoring involves the taking of planned regular action to seek information about the effectiveness of the organisation and arrangements regarding health and safety. Q15 A15 What inspections involve operators? Routine inspections of the immediate work area and plant.
Q14 A14 What three key elements do all forms of workplace inspection include? The three common elements of all inspections are: A23 The main factors influencing the frequency of monitoring activities are: The following elements should be covered: Q17 A17 What role does senior management have in workplace inspections? Senior management has responsibility for ensuring that effective workplace inspection regimes are in place and are operated effectively.
A22 Q23 State five factors which influence the frequency of monitoring activities. Q19 A19 Identify the seven Cs which underpin effective report writing. It encompasses all forms of systems for monitoring.
The seven Cs are be: The introductory part of a report should set the scene. In addition. True or false? Q22 Performance review is concerned with ensuring that incident investigations are properly concluded. Q18 A18 Why are checklists used in inspections? Checklists help to ensure a consistent systematic and comprehensive approach to checking all the safety elements to be covered during an inspection. The sample is the snapshot of the state of health and safety at one particular time throughout the premises.
Element 8 Incident investigation. Accident triangle: Root cause: Health and safety auditing is the structured process of collecting independent information on the efficiency. A compliance rating indicates the degree to which the organisation is meeting a particular performance standard.. Q24 A24 Define health and safety auditing.. Your answer s should be built around the type of figure you saw in the study material. Q3 A3 Q4 A4 54 Single-causal domino accident model: The examiners are not asking you to discuss in detail the merits of the single.
Tree form. Choose a few accidents of your own experience and see if you can present them in accident tree form.
You have already seen this question in the study material. In the study material we gave plenty of examples of lack of management control etc. Remember this as you tackle this type of question. By way of revision of the key points. Reactive monitoring: Proactive monitoring: The information gained from both the proactive and reactive monitoring can highlight areas on which management should prioritise their activities..
You might have mentioned: Classification of accidents There is no one way to classify accidents. Our study material gave a fuller description of the five steps. Q8 A8 Q9 A9 56 Revision of earlier units. Several HSE publications recommend a five step approach in the development of a safe system of work. Special requirements of permit to work schemes Step 4 Implement the system. Briefly expand on each of the five steps of the previous question. Step 3 Define safe methods Oral.
Job safety analysis can be activity based or job based: Analysis of accident and illness data should be undertaken to look for patterns and events of significance: Procedures following an accident: Accident investigation sequence: Q19 A19 What is the purpose of analysing all information about accidents? To identify underlying causes of accidents and to provide information about trends and other patterns in workplace accidents Q20 A20 To whom do the results of accident investigations have to be communicated?
The result of an individual accident investigation would be communicated to the victim. Q14 A14 What are the four elements of the investigation process? Establishing the facts. Unsafe acts and unsafe conditions. For reportable incidents. A15 Q16 A16 List the types of documentation which may need to be consulted during an accident investigation. Q15 Identify the categories of staff who may be considered useful members of an internal accident investigation team.
The main purpose of an accident investigation is to find the cause. The types of record to be consulted are: Q18 A18 Who is responsible initially for the reporting of accidents and safety-related incidents? The first-line manager or supervisor. Depending on the seriousness of the accident and the extent of the underlying causes. The categories of staff might include the immediate supervisor or foreman. The types of information may include: Q21 A21 59 Apart from the accident documentation about the particular incident.
Q2 A2 Outline possible measures to minimise the risks to young persons at work. Q5 A5 Outline the possible effects on health from exposure to high levels of noise 8. Possible effects on health from exposure to high levels of noise include: Please remember to pay attention to the wording of the question ie " causes of fires" is different from the spread of fires!.